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HAPPY EASTER TO EVERYONE :)


Happy Easter to everyone!

 

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32 comments on “HAPPY EASTER TO EVERYONE :)

        • Yes, I understand – you know, Finnish languages is one of the most difficult language in the world – because of its grammar – 16 cases!

          All the best, dear friend 🙂
          Didi

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          • Yes, case is a bit of an awkward concept if you are 1st language english speaking – because we are a bit short on them – at least since about 1100. But how did both FinnoUgric and IndoEuropean languages both end up with cases?

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            • When having a closer look into the grammar of a language we will find that maybe all languages (I do not know how it is with the picture languages) constist of cases, like a skeleton of the language. In Roman languages you have got 5 or even 6 cases (when counting Vocativ in addition to it), in the Slavic languages you will have 6 or 7 cases, Indogermanic languages have normally 4 cases – Finnish/Ugric is a unique language and has no similarity with any other language (except Estonian language) – in the Finnish/Ugric language they do not use prepositions – instead they replace them with cases as special forms put to the end of a Verb, Noun etc.

              Maybe I could help to explain a bit about the languages 🙂

              Have a good time
              Didi

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              • Actually I know a reasonable amount about languages – IndoEuropean ones anyway. Yes, Slavic, Germanic and Latin – all effectively on the same PIE root so no surprise that they all have case endings. But you can function well enough as a language without these endings and inbthe cases of English, Swedish, Macedonian, Bulgarian, French and Spanish etc – with the exception of personal pronouns etc largely these inflections have disappeared. Welsh and Gaelic have them as frontal inflections and not suffixes. So, you might say PIE had a complex case system which has gradually worn away in many languages and very probably that was what most earlier IE scholars thought. And they probably also thought there had always been three genders M F and neuter – and in many the neuter had assimilated to the masculine etc.
                Then they found Hittite and the Anatolian branch. It must have broken away around 2500 BC. Unlike most early IE languages it only has 2 tenses and two genders animate and neuter. Hittite had either lost the feminine gender or had never had it. Furthermore its case system although complex applied in the same way to both genders. So PIE at c 2500 BC must have been heavily inflected but the inflections for both genders were essentially the same. There is no sign that in early PIE gender functioned as a derivational device.
                Then we have the problem that we don’t have any inscriptions for the next breakaways: Tocharian as we know it dates from thousands of years later, Phrygian is poorly attested described only by a few Greek authors.
                Is it possible that at some point in the Yamnaya Horizon hypothesis that the language anscestor encountered people from another completely separate language group?

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                • Dear friend

                  Thank you very much for these detailed information given, which I consider as very interesting, since my profession also deals with languages.

                  According to language researchers the degree of diversity of the spoken languages revealed from 2000 years BC onwards, makes a point of separation after about 3000 BC appear not plausible. (They came to this conclusion, because of the common vocabulary of the subsequent languages, for example for the word “wheel”)

                  And interesting is that the cuneiform was at first a picture language. It developed into a syllable writing, from which also phonetic consonants (the Ugaritic writing)sprang up. The cuneiform inscription was invented by the Sumerians and later used by numerous peoples of the ancient Orient: the Akkaids, Babylonians, Assyrians, Hittites, Persians, and others.

                  So PIE itself seems to be a follow-up language originating from picture languages. Maybe there was even one common language at a certain time which then underwent different developments.

                  Thanks for sharing this interesting subject, dear friend:)

                  Have a happy Easter
                  Didi

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